Illinois Environmental Protection Agency Crab Orchard Creek Watershed TMDL Implementation Plan
Final Report 61
precipitated. Sulfate reduction and iron sulfide precipitation occur in the compost treatment (Skousen et.
In the vertical flow reactor, the intent is usually to optimize sulfate reduction in the organic layer by
causing water to flow through the organic matter. Eger found in his study that composted municipal waste
and several other types of organic material supported reasonable levels of sulfate reduction (Eger, 1994).
The lower pH condition, generally created due to limestone, enhances sulfate reduction rates.
At the Brandy Camp site in PA, this method was utilized and after passage through the treatment system
the effluent pH increased from 4.3 to 7.1. The system effectively increased alkalinity, but did not change
manganese concentration (Hellier 1996). The sulfate reduction information was not available, although
many studies have found that this treatment method enhances sulfate reduction rates (Hellier 1996,
Skousen et. al, 1998).
Cost information for vertical flow reactors was not available.
5.16.6 Pyrolusite Process System
This is a patented process, which utilizes site-specific cultured microbes to remove manganese and sulfate
from acid mine drainage. The treatment process consists of a shallow bed of limestone aggregate which is
inoculated with specifically cultured microorganisms and inundated with acid mine drainage. After
laboratory testing determines the proper combination, microorganisms are introduced to the limestone bed
by inoculation ports located throughout the bed. The microorganisms grow on the surface of the limestone
chips and oxidize the metal contaminants (such as iron and manganese) while etching away the limestone
fragments, which in turn increases the alkalinity, raises the pH of water, and reduces armoring on the
limestone fragments for an extended treatment lifespan. This process has been used on several acid mine
sites in the western Pennsylvania with promising results (PDEP 2007). In most systems, a small wetland
is located up gradient of the treatment bed to provide nutrients for the microorganisms (Gue et al. 2004).
In one of the studies conducted in the Village of Mineral City, Carroll County, Ohio, AMD from the
Linden mine was treated using the Pyrolusite process. The Linden system is located in a relative
upstream position and the system’s net-alkaline, low-metals discharge greatly assists in the top-down
restoration approach being implemented within the Huff Run Watershed. It was determined that the use
of Pyrolusite process reduced the acidity of the watershed by 63.6 percent and manganese by 91.86
percent. In the process, the pH was raised in excess of two 2 standard units, and high levels of alkalinity
were generated from the limestone bed (Gue et. al. 2004).
The total cost for the construction of the Pyrolusite process system treating the Linden mine, was
$22,181/acre and the inoculation cost for the same project was $ 6,621/acre. Therefore, the total cost for
establishing a Pyrolusite process ranges from $28,802/acre to $35,000/acre.
5.17 Inlake Controls
For lakes experiencing high rates of phosphorus or manganese inputs from bottom sediments, several
management measures are available to control internal loading. Hypolimnetic (bottom water) aeration
Click tabs to swap between content that is broken into logical sections.